International Development

Development actors are operational at local, district, national, international and transnational (global) levels. At each of these levels actors can be from the public (government) sector, private (business) sector or from civil society (ordinary citizens). It is common to refer to the different groups of actors as stakeholders and for interactions between them to be called multistakeholder meetings. These offer huge challenges in terms of communication and consensus building.


For all accounts donors include bilateral and multilateral agents. Bilateral agencies are, for example, DFID, USAID, SIDA or JICA. Multilateral agencies include the World Bank, the IMF, the UN and its institutions, the EU and the regional development banks (AfDB, ADB, IDB). Although UN agencies are not so much Donors as managers of funds.

Public Sector

Private sector

The private sector is made up of...

Civil Society

Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) include international NGOs (iNGOs), local NGOs, faith based organisations (FBOs), grassroots, research centres, univertities, think tanks and networks.